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Advantages of Ni-Cd Battery: high efficiency. Light body, long driving range, and strict requirements for user use and maintenance. Disadvantages: high price, uneven domestic lithium battery technology, lithium batteries used in electric vehicles have safety risks. Lead-acid batteries Advantages: high cost performance. Relatively cheap battery, large capacity, multiple battery choices, and mature technology. Disadvantages: low efficiency. The battery pack is bulky, which leads to the weight of the vehicle body, the driving mileage is short, and the battery needs scheduled maintenance. Overall Lithium batteries are still better. Hope my answer can help you.
Nickel-cadmiumbattery A kind of alkaline storage battery whose positive active material is mainly made of nickel and negative active material is mainly made of cadmium. The positive electrode is nickel hydroxide, the negative electrode is cadmium, and the electrolyte is a potassium hydroxide solution. Its advantages are light weight, shock resistance, and long life. It is often used in small electronic equipment.
The cathode material of Ni-Cd battery is a mixture of nickel hydroxide and graphite powder. The anode material is sponge mesh sieve cadmium powder and cadmium oxide powder. The electrolyte is usually sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide solution. When the ambient temperature is high, use a sodium hydroxide solution with a density of 1.17 to 1.19 (at 15 ° C). When the ambient temperature is low, use a potassium hydroxide solution with a density of 1.19 to 1.21 (at 15 ° C). When the temperature is below -15 ° C, a potassium hydroxide solution with a density of 1.25 to 1.27 (at 15 ° C) is used. In order to take into account both low temperature performance and charge retention ability, sealed nickel-cadmium batteries use a potassium hydroxide solution with a density of 1.40 (at 15 ° C). In order to increase the capacity and cycle life of the battery, a small amount of lithium hydroxide is usually added to the electrolyte (approximately 15-20g per liter of electrolyte).
After charging a nickel-cadmium battery, the active material on the positive plate becomes nickel hydroxide [NiOOH], and the active material on the negative plate becomes metal cadmium; after the nickel-cadmium battery is discharged, the active material on the positive plate becomes nickel hydroxide , The active material on the negative plate becomes cadmium hydroxide.
The active material on the positive plate of a nickel-cadmium battery is composed of nickel oxide powder and graphite powder. Graphite does not participate in chemical reactions, and its main role is to enhance conductivity. The active material on the negative plate is composed of cadmium oxide powder and iron oxide powder. The function of the iron oxide powder is to make the cadmium oxide powder have a higher diffusivity, prevent agglomeration, and increase the capacity of the electrode plate. The active materials are respectively wrapped in perforated steel strips, which become the positive and negative plates of the battery after pressure forming.
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