The mainstream selections of LiFePO₄ batteries from China manufacturer consist of battery cells and packs with 300mAh to 500Ah capacity.
Prismatic and cylindrical cells have 3.2V rated voltage, and 0.5 to 1.5C charging, 2 to 5C discharging and 10C maximum discharging rates. These can last more than 500 cycles.
Cylindrical variants are in sizes of 14500, 18650, 26650, 32650 and 38120. Units in 18650, which dominate shipments for the type in the country, have 1,000 to 1,400mAh nominal capacity, 30 to 80mohm internal resistance, and 1 to 1.5C maximum charging and 5 to 10C maximum discharging rates. Their charging and discharging temperatures are 0 to 45 C and -20 to 60 C.
Battery packs come with 10 to 500Ah capacity, 12 to 576V rated voltage, 800 to 2,000-cycle life span and -20 to 60 C operating temperature. These have a built-in battery management system for protection against overcharging, -discharging, -current and short circuits. The main applications include electric vehicles, golf cars, bicycles, wheelchairs and tools, portable medical devices, UPS and wind turbines.
The key raw materials used in LiFePO₄ batteries include lithium iron phosphate as cathode inputs, graphite as anode materials, electrolytes and separators. The first three are sourced from local providers. Lithium iron phosphate comes mainly from Tianjin STL, Shenzhen BTR, Pulead and Hunan Shanshan. Separators are from foreign suppliers such as Asahi and Tonen.
Despite the stable costs of materials, prices of LiFePO₄ batteries dropped by about 10 percent in the past six months due to mass production and intense competition. The majority of manufacturers think this pricing trend will persist for the rest of the year.
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