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The positive electrode active material of the nickel-hydrogen battery is Ni(OH)2 (called NiO electrode), the negative electrode active material is metal hydride, also called hydrogen storage alloy (the electrode is called hydrogen storage electrode), and the electrolyte is 6mol/L potassium hydroxide solution. The process methods for the active material to form the electrode pads mainly include sintering, slurrying, foaming nickel, fiber nickel and infiltrating, etc. Electrodes prepared by different processes have large differences in capacity and large current discharge performance. The battery is produced in different processes according to the conditions of use. Most of the civilian batteries for communications, etc., use drawn-out type negative electrodes and foamed nickel type positive electrodes to form batteries. The charge and discharge chemical reaction are as follows:
Ni-MH Cell Performance
Positive electrode: Ni(OH)2+OH-=NiOOH+H2O+e-
Negative electrode: M+H2O+e-=MHab+OH-
Total reaction: Ni(OH)2+M=NiOOH+MH
Note: M: hydrogen alloy; Hab: adsorbed hydrogen; the process from left to right of the reaction formula is a charging process; the process from right to left of the reaction formula is a discharge process.
When charging, the positive electrode's Ni(OH)2 reacts with OH- to generate NiOOH and H2O, and at the same time releases e- to generate MH and OH- together. The total reaction is Ni(OH)2 and M to generate NiOOH, and the hydrogen storage alloy stores hydrogen; In contrast, MHab releases H+, H+ and OH- generate H2O and e-, and NiOOH, H2O and e- regenerate Ni(OH)2 and OH-. The standard electromotive force of the battery is 1.319V.
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