Over the last two decades, the Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery has caused a transformation from the consumption of metals and minerals. The landscape is expected to change further as the Li-ion battery evolves from mobile applications, such as the mobile phone with a small 10 watt-hours (Wh) pack, to the electrical car with a battery capacity of 50--100kWh, and to the monster Electronic Storage System (ESS) with up to 10MWh battery banks. At the start of the millennium, only a small percentage of both cobalt and lithium moved to batteries, but by 2015 46 percent of cobalt and 32 percentage of lithium went into Li-ion production. Graphite, nickel manganese, copper and aluminum have yet to be affected in precisely the same way.
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